Margaret Culpeper 
- Born: 1499, Bedgebury, Kent, England
- Marriage: Philip of Appledore Chute 
- Died: 28 Sep 1555, Surrenden Chute/Old Surrenden, Bethersden, Kent, England at age 56
Philip Chute of Appledore, Joan Ensing Chute, Elizabeth Girling Chute and Margaret Culpeper Chute:
Philip Chute of Appledore is probably the best known of our family ancestors: he was by the far the first most recorded Chute, appearing in many Tudor England historical references, for his achievements, for his responsibilities, for his military record, for his affiliation with King Henry VIII, and for his landholdings, which were extensive.
From the "Visitation of Kent", 1530: "Philip Chowte of Herne in the pryshe of Apledore co., Kent, esquier, and at this present Captayne of Cambre".
From WEC: "Philip Chute of Appledore was standard bearer to King Henry VIII (June 28, 1491 - January 28, 1547). Acquired Old Surrenden in 1553, in addition to his other holdings, such as the manor of Winchelsea, Horne Place in Appledore and others."
ARRIVAL OF PHILIP CHUTE IN APPLEDORE
(Background): ["When Roger Horne died in 1544, he owned not only this manor of Kenardington, but also five dwelling houses of which one, clearly Hornes Place, Appledore, was held of the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury. His son Henry succeeded to all the property and, on his death in 1565, left all his estate to his daughter Benet. She was to be the last of the Hornes of Appledore and Kenardington. She became a recusant, one of those who refused to take the oath of allegiance to Queen Elizabeth, and in 1570, at the age of eleven, fled to the continent without the Queen's license. She married another recusant, Richard Guildeforde. They both died in exile, he in 1586, she in 1597. There were no children and the long line of Hornes of Applefore ended with her death.]
Another potentate had arrived in the parish, Philip Chute. A man of distinction and of great wealth, he belonged to a family of eminence, of which Chaloner Chute of the Vyne, near Basingstroke, a distinguished lawyer and Speaker of the House of Commons at the time of the Restoration, was to be the most prominent member. Philip Chute had won fame and the gratitude of King Henry VIII at the seige of Boulougne on September 14, 1544. Here he had served as standard bearer to the men of arms of the Kings Band. He was rewarded with the grant of a canton to his coat of arms - the lion of England on a field argent and vert - and with considerable wealth. He had already been given the confiscated monastaries at Winchelsea and Faversham. The King, on July 15th, 1545, appointed him Captain of Camber Castle and, more to the point, provided with the appointment a salary of 2/- a day, and the right to draw 6d. a day for each man on an establishment of eight "soldeors" and six "gonners". Henry VIII's patent was endorsed later on behalf of Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth, thus ensuring the continued payment of the pension.
Philip Chute undoubtedly owned the lease of, and lived in, Hornes Place, Appledore, and was buried in Appledore church. When he acquired it is not known. Hasted is wrong in saying that when Richard Guildeford and his wife Benet, the daughter of Henry Horne, were attainted, Hornes Place, with his other property was confiscated to the crown "and the Queen soon afterwards granted to here." Henry Horne did not die until 1565, only two years before Philip Chute's death, and there is no reason to think that he was a recusant or that his property was confiscated. His daughter Benet was then only six years old and was not declared a recusant until 1570. The legend of the Queen bestowing the property of the Papist recusant on her father's gallant standard bearer is much more colorful, but on his own statement he acquired Hornes Place by purchase, and did so probably some time before Henry Horne died in 1565."
Philip Chute's Land & Property
According to Sir John Winnifrith, Philip's will at the time of his death indicated "his holdings included land in Iden, Appledore, Kenardington and elsewhere in Kent, 'which I bought of John Harper, gent'. He possessed the manor of Herste and other lands in Godmersham and Childham and land in Bethersden. In Sussex, he owned land not only in Iden, as already mentioned, but also in Brede and Sedlescombe."
Note: the estate map (right) was drawn in 1628 for Philip's grandson, Edward Chute, Esq. of Bethersden, and may not reflect all of the lands listed.
Philip's children are not fully listed in WEC. It is believed that he had at least five children, who would have still been living at the time that his will was proved. According to Winnifrith, "Philip Chute was buried in Appledore Church on April 7, 1567. He had made his will in March 1565, and it was proved in February 1568."
A History of Appledore <http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&sourceid=41626167&bfpid=0850334853&bfmtype=book>
According to Steve Chute: "I found that reference in a book called A History of Appledore by Sir John Winnifrith ISBN 0 85033 485 3. The information was drawn from Philip's will which stated that his property was to be divided among his three sons all still under age 21 at this time 7 Apr 1567. His personal chattels were divided among his sons and his two daughters. Sir John mentions only son George by name but this will is preserved in the Cathederal Library at Canterbury so it is probably possible at some point to see it and gets the kids' names. However, several other wills were also mentioned in which Philip's sons George and Walter are mentioned as beneficiaries. Now this equal division of property amongst the sons was the law in Kent from about the 1100's onwards and was known as Gavelkind which is much different from Norman practice and a carryover from the days when Kent was a Saxon stronghold."
"I have yet to find a reference to any child other than Elizabeth for Philip & Margaret. Maybe the other kids are with Joane Dussing/Ensing. I found a reference to Philip of Appledore in A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland by John Burke (Vol 1 p. 633) that states that he first married Margaret Culpepper of Bedgeberry da. of Alexander and 2nd he marries Joane Dussing of Winchelsea, Sussex da. of Thomas. BTW Philip was given the manor of Winchelsea when he dissolved the monasteries. We visited this quiet seaside town and viewed the ruins. The earliest birth date for the sons to be under 21 in 1567 is 1546 which is a long time after Philip supposedly married Margaret. Then there is the Elizabeth Chute who married John Taylor. I found two references to this marriage that have only a few dates attached to other family members that don't seem totally consistent. The first in Vol 4 of the above reference in giving a pedigree of the Taylor family. The second reference comes from A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Extinct & Dormant Baronetcies of England, Ireland and Scotland by John Burke & John Bernard Burke."
These two references list some of the same children for this marriage but also each has a few different ones. In a footnote to the first of these two references the author in a footnote says that Philip is descended from Alexander of Taunton - and I quote- "...through Philip Chute of Appeldore..." This would seem to indicate a son of Philip also a Philip-the 3rd son?? But in the second reference they just refer to Philip of Bethersden. Playing detective with the dates closely surrounding this marriage it seems likely that this marriage took place ca 1560-65 which would better fit Philip unless we assume some family members along the way marrying early or late, i.e. not at, say, between 18-20 yrs.
Some additional references re: Philip and Margaret include IGI 2078110 (film) and for her parents IGI 6142818. Also AFN: FBDK-ST and AFN: 9HPV-FB.
In the ongoing discussion over the identity of Walter Chute, he adds, "Is it possible that Holles didn't get it exactly right?? Perhaps he was confused about who was oldest or maybe he was saying that because of Gavelkind Walter should not be left out???
THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION AND THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND
Philip was married to his third wife, Margaret Culpeper, the very same year that Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses, against the practice of selling indulgences, to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany (October 31, 1517). Given the length of time it took news to travel, it isn't as though word of Luther's act interrupted his nuptials, but it had sent shockwaves across Europe that certainly reached his ears. As with most dramatic events in history, there are quite a few historians who dispute this (not that Martin Luther wrote the 95 Theses, but that he actually nailed them to the door). Indulgence, for those unfamiliar with the practice, originated as a penance - you could be forgiven for a sin by doing something to make amends for it. Over time, this changed to the point where it was possible to "buy" forgiveness not by remorse, but by donating money to the Church, for example, or by sending someone in your place to participate in a Crusade. The churchmen responsible for collecting the indulgences would often use these funds to pay off personal debts, or increase their own wealth.
"Martin Luther read the instruction manual for indulgence merchants in October of 1517. The things he read in this manual made it clear to him that as a Theologian he couldn't keep silent any longer. By nailing his theses onto the door of the Castle Church, Luther encouraged an open discussion over the sale of Indulgences."
Source: Martin Luther, Biografie von W.Landgraf; Verlag Neues Leben Berlin 1981
It was never Martin Luther's intention to create the Protestant Church, but to reform the Catholic Church. In fact, he wasn't even the first Catholic to protest the practice of selling indulgences, or to call for Church reform; Erasmus had done the same thing eight years earlier; Gasparo Contarini of Venice some five or six years earlier. Girolamo Savonarola of Florence (1452\endash 1498), a Dominican, had so angered the Church calling for reform that the object of his complaints, Pope Alexander VI, had him burned at the stake when Philip was 4. But Martin Luther made use of one thing the others (Savonarola excepted) couldn't: the printing press. Copies of his 95 Theses were read all over Western Europe.
It is not known whether Philip or his children read any of Martin Luther's writings, but they would have had to have been living under a rock not to be aware of Luther's protest. The reason is that Henry VIII used the unrest caused by Luther's protest to seize Catholic lands in Great Britain, and Philip was the beneficiary of this practice for he was granted several estates, monastic lands originally, in this fashion.
THE CHUTE CURSE
After reading of Philip Chute's arrival in Appledore, you've already seen the theory that Philip Chute inherited the Horne property through confiscation discredited ... you may be interested in the legend of "The Chute Curse" nonetheless.
It is uncertain where the legend of the "Chute Curse" originated. Both the Chute and Horne families at the present time share the belief that the curse as passed down through the generations was rather apocryphal (i.e., written after all the events predicted in it had already taken place), and this is borne out by scholars of Old English who raise the proverbial eyebrow at the text, dating it later than its purported date of 1566. The good news is that, like the famous Hatfield and McCoy families, the Chutes and the Hornes, when we cross each others' paths, are quite amicable these days, and all appears to be forgiven. Obviously, it surfaced much later than the events themselves, possible as late as 1817. The legend is that Henry Horne's sole survivor and heiress, Benedicta or Benet Horne, leveled a curse on the Chute family which extended far past Philip, forever "cussing" his kin into perpetuity, so it appears that a Horne descendant, somewhere down the line, did believe that Philip was handed the lands by Queen Elizabeth.
The text of the curse, graciously provided by Sir Geoffrey Horne is as follows:
"Hea be accursed in his sleepying evere night.
hea will be dreamed of devils, and awoked with fright,
Na place to reste his bonnes at Horne's be set.
One year, not more his lyffe be best,
Deepe neathe stone his bonnes to dust
An beit so, his kin faevere cussed
Fowle Queen Bess did steal our place
An give to Shutte of Camber fa grace,
No man of Appuldre werked his soil,
Hea looked afar for men to toil.
Shutte will go an tyme will tell,
How short his travel ta his hell."
Aside from the obvious historical documents disproving the land confiscation, the curse is also discredited by its text. The apostrophe as a possessive form did come into use about this time (16th century), but not into FULL use until later. At the time, the contraction was used as an abbreviation for the word "his", such as in the phrase, "John, his horse" - which became "John's horse" in the abbreviated version. However, the use of the apostrophe was in limited use in 1566, and would have been used as a contraction of standard Old English in usage at the time. The author of this would have used the apostrophe as a contraction for "Horne, his place", or "Horne, his home", or "Horne, his chapel". The usage above, with the stand-alone "Horne's" and the object "place", "home" or "chapel" implied, is a much later construction. I'm still guessing it was composed in the 19th Century, after 1817, and written to SOUND like Old English.
Philip did get the "last word" on this curse, so to speak: despite the prophesy that "Na place to reste his bonnes at Horne's be set", his jawbone was recovered and re-buried beneathe the altar in Horne's chapel in 1925. One suspects - mostly based on the use of the apostrophe, if the transcription is correct - that at least the phrase about his bones having no place to rest was composed sometime after 1817, but before 1925. There is also a record of a Katherine Horne, a cousin, who "claimed the estates in 1566 for her family, but was unsuccessful." It may also be that Katherine herself was responsible for portions of the Curse predicting the date of death, and the bones having no place to rest composed later, although if she did try to claim the estates through legal channels in 1566, it seems unlikely that she wouldn't have known that he was generally known as "Choute" and not "Shutte".
Benedicta herself was in Rouen, France when she gained her majority in 1574, 9 years after after Philip's death, and there is no record of her ever attempting to reclaim her family's land.
ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE HORNE AND CHUTE FAMILIES OF APPLEDORE
By F. William Cock, M.D., F.S.A.
When Mr. Pearman states (Volume XVIII, 1889) that all the records of Appledore in the shape of registers had disappeared, this is only true of the ancient register books of Appledore and Eboney. These were in existance down to 1787 as quotations from them are to be found in other parish records up to that date. Apparently he did not know of the splendidly arranged series of Transcripts of Registers at Canterbury, and relied on on a note made in a copy of Harris's History of Kent for the date of the burial of Phillip Chute. Between the years 1910 and 1925, I copied the Transcripts of Appledore and Eboney, 1563-1812. In doing so, by mistake I twice copied the year 1566. This shows the entry of the burial of "Master Phillype Chouet", April 7th, 1566. Great was my disappointment when I recently inspected the transcript to find that the entry had disappeared. The paper was, as I noticed thirty years ago, very torn and brittle and no doubt during the burial under sandbags in the Great War, some more fragments had dropped off the sheet. The rest of the papers, being of better material, are in excellent condition. And here I would pay tribute to that member of the Canterbury family of Bunce, Ciprian Rondeau Bunce, Alderman and Mayor, who so laboriously and carefully, sorted out, boxed and arranged into the two categories, Archidiaconal and Consistorial, all the long series of transcripts which I believe is the most complete in England and now, once again, we are indebted to another indefatigable worker, our member, Mr. Frank Tyler, F.S.A., the Records Branch Secretary, who has gone over the same ground, sorting out, arranging in series the papers dislocated by careless searchers, putting them into new or repaired boxes and leaving them in such order that future workers will find their work a pleasure and not a toil.
In the course of his paper, Mr. Pearman mentions the appointment of Phillip Chute as Captain of Camber Castle. I recently became the possessor of the letters patent, giving him this charge. Although Camber Castle is in Sussex, about four miles from the Kentish border yet, as Phillip Chute was a large land owner in Kent and is buried at Appledore, I thought a record of the Patent would be appropriate to our pages, and here it should be noted that most of the oak timber for these Henry VIII castles came from the Weald and was floated down the Rother, past Appledore, and so to the sea. As my sight did not permit me to do the transcription, I asked my friend Miss M. B. Butcher, the well-known paleaographer, to do this. She has extended the Latin and given a translation. Moreover, she hunted up the lists and found who was the signer of the endorsed continuation of appointment under Mary, viz. J. Saunder. There is no endorsement for Edward VI. Most of the seal is complete and I think the reproduction of it and its document attached come out well, thanks to our printers, Messrs. Headley Brothers (Plates II and III).
In his will, Phillip Chute desires to be buried in "my chapel in Appledore Church". This is the Horne Chapel, and this claim for burial there came from his having held the Appledore Estate of the Recusant Family of Horne Guldeford. When I restored this Chapel about 10 years ago, with the aid of my friend, the late Godfrey Wood Humphry, we found the original floor, under a wooden one. It was a mass of brickbats and broken flagstones extremely decayed. On levelling this, we came upon a small barrel vault with a shaped unenscribed tombstone lying loosely over it. This vault ran west for about 9 feet from the east wall of the chapel. It evidently had displaced Phillip Chute from his grave, as beyond a few fragments of the skeleton, nothing remained of his internment. These were reburied under the floor of the sacrarium. The vault contained two coffins, those of Jeffrey Monk, ob. 1817, and his third wife. We removed two or three bricks at the west end, and so were able to ascertain who lay there. A somewhat startling occurence happened then. The men having gone to dinner, I was seated with my legs in the excavation, when a very loud rumbling noise came from the vault. On putting in a torch, it was seen that the lesser coffin had collapsed into a heap of small fragments and dust. This was due to the admission of air into what was practically an air-tight space. I have known a similar thing happen on other occasions. The bricks were then put back and cemented into place and the floor levelled, concreted and tiled, largely with the 14th century tiles found in the Church, with modern pan tiles to fill the gaps. I have had cut in the stone the inscription he desired to have placed on it, "Phillip Chute, Bur'd 7 April 1566." I have been unable to find the exact date of his death.
One more point of Chute interest. When clearing out a cupboard at the Sessions House, Maidstone, at the bottom, dusty and crumpled, was found a map or plan of the Chute Estate in Appledore, 1628. It is of considerable local importance as it not only gives the names of the surrounding landowners, but also a good many of the householders in the Street.
I have had this photostated. A few years ago, a member of the Irish branch of the Chute family purchased a home in the Street, so after a lapse of over 200 years, the name again appears in the Parish lists. I repeat the description of the heraldry. Gules semi de Mullets d'or 3 swords barwise proper, the middlemost encountering the other two. A canton per fess argent and vert thereon a lion of England. This is the coat of the Kentish branch of the Chute family. It is given in the visitations of 1619 and 1668 and at length in the last edition of Guillim. It is to be seen in the Horne Chapel in the Church, in colored gesso, the beautiful work of my lamented friend, G.W. Humphry. It also occurs on a brass 10 by 12 inches with the mark of cadence in Marden Church, Hereford, where it commemmorates as well, on a shield of pretence, Walford of Misterton. It can be seen too, in a painted glass window in Spelhurst Church, and appears in full colours on the Bethersden Church Monument. The Canton was granted to Philip Chute for his bravery as standard-bearer to Henry VIII at the Seige of Boulogne. I have gone over the large engraving of the Siege at the Society of Antiquities, but have been unable to distinguish this particular banner, though others are named.
According to a note by Edward Jacob, the historian, Philip Chute in 1564 was granted a license to alienate the Manor of Sexty, alias Nackington. Jacob was then, 1770, the owner of the Manor. In order to complete the tale of the exile of the last of the Hornes, I add extracts from the special commission lists of the Exchequer. These are condensed.
No. 1132. 26 Eliz (1583). Appoints Thomas Fludd, William Baynham, Robert Rudston and William Lambert (probably Lambarde, the historian) as special commissioners. They found that Benedicta (Horne), widow of Richard Guylford, deceased "Contemptuosa", quitted our Realm and obedience in the 13th year of our reign (1570-1). Possessed of the manor and messuage called "Hornes" and 60 acres of land in Kenarton, Woodchurch, Snargate and Appledore. A messuage and garden called Kelche in Warehorne (1253 Kelche returned as a "Borga" in the hundred of Blackbourne), a messuage in Kenarton called Wasshe and a capital messuage at Westhawke in the parishes of Kingsnorthe and Esshetisford (Ashford).
No. 1150. 34 Eliz (1592). 20 May. Taken at East Greenwich in Kent before Sir John Haukins and Edmunde Cooke and a jury. William Moyle Gent. on 31 August 28 Eliz. (1586) at Rye in Sussex quitted the realm without license for Roane in France and so also did Stephen Cooper on 26 March 29 Eliz. (1586). Robert Moyle now holds much of this.
There was yet another inquest at Canterbury 41 Eliz. (1598) when a witness, Stephen Cooper, aged 50, tells of a house near Appledore, decayed and wasted before the letters patent to Sir Anthony Aucher, who fell when Calais was lost. Twelve years passed, the house being then occupied by one Boughton, and now by Thomas Adams. I think this must be Horne's Place, as Henry Horne, the last of the male representatives, lived at Little Horne, Kenardington. A great deal of the blocking up of the windows in the beautiful chapel at Great Horne is of the small Tudor brick and this would look like the abandonment of the chapel in late Tudor times.
I have been unable to trace the actual date of the gift or purchase of Great Horne to Philip Chute, but it myust have been a considerable time before his death. [Note by Geoffrey Horne: "He only lived 1 year at Horne's".] At any rate Benedicta Guldeford escaped to France after that time. Both she and her husband died in exile. They had no children and left no P.C.C. wills.
I have also been unable to get a connected pedigree of the Hornes. There are a number of fragmentary ones. I am afraid I cannot accepot the somewhat extended one ass usually given. The family was eminently a county business one, commissioners on drainage boards, Sheriffs, Memebrs of Parliament and all the work that now falls largely to the County Council. One fell at Towton and his widow was granted a pension. Another was raided by Jack Cade. A race of active, useful squires such as still exists among us. I add a list of references to the Horne family, which may of use to those who come after.
Hasted, sub voce Appledore.
Archaeologia Cantiana, vide Index.
Calendar of Patent Rolls, 1377-1485.
Calendar of Close Rolls, 1355-67.
Parliamentary Rolls, 1495.
Register C., fol. 273-4. Canterbury Cathedral Library.
Inquest, P.M. Gervase Horne, February 14th, 1517. His son, Roger ["b. 1507 at Horne's Place"] proves his age at Appledore, November 6th, 1528.
Inquest, P.M. Roger Horne at St. Mary Cray, October 24th, 1543.
Henry Horne his son "of Kenardington" died June 6, 1565.
BACK TO THE REFORMATION
Henry at this time formed the Anglican Church, or the Church of England, and was promptly excommunicated. Excommunication, in those days, was one of the worst things that could happen to you - it was a literal banishment to hell. The anxiety and stress of this event on Philip and his family must have been enormous.
The response of the rest of the population of England was pretty much what you'd expect: widespread rebellion at being sent straight to hell - which is where they all thought they were going, for going to war with the Pope. Henry had to repress much of these rebellions rather brutally. They couldn't have missed the effect that this decree had on the Catholic hierarchy in England: priests, nuns, Bishops and monks were tossed off of their lands and left to starve. Laymen such as Philip who had been raised to revere the leaders of the Catholic Church were horrified.
Spain and France remained staunchly Catholic and allied themselves with the Pope; one of Henry's worries throughout the rest of his reign was whether he'd be invaded by France, Spain and the Pope's armies, trying to reclaim Holy Roman territory.
Philip may have been initially horrified and appalled, but if he was, he adjusted rather well. He maintained his loyalty to the Crown, he maintained his position as Henry's standard bearer, and did so well at it that Henry granted him additional armaments on his family crest and made him a keeper of Camber Castle in Rye. Camber Castle was one of the fortresses on the south side of England that Henry built to make sure that he was well fortified against any possible invasions from France and Spain (who had entered into a treaty in 1538) or the Pope's armies.
In the midst of such religious upheaval, Henry had to put his faith in whoever "kept" the castles, that they would defend the realm against any and all possible invaders - including the Pope. Obviously, he thought Philip could be called upon to do just that; being named the Keeper of Camber Castle at this time was a great honor and a sign of the trust which Henry had in him.
According to WEC: "Obtained in recompense for his gallant services at the Seige of Boulogne in 1544, an augmentation to his armorial bearings." However, this is contradicted somewhat by the fact that he became Captain of Camber Castle in January of 1544, while the Siege of Boulogne took place that following summer. It seems more likely that he received his bearings for an unspecified military action described below, while Captain of the Castle, which took place in 1545. The appearance of the French fleet in the coastal waters was connected to the Siege of Boulogne, but it is unlikely that he would have left the southern coast of England unprotected while he sailed off across the channel to Boulogne itself.
To confuse the issue even further, this account has him being made Captain of Camber Castle in January of 1544, and yet receiving his "Patent of Appointment" in July of 1544. This obviously makes something of a difference regarding his reported involvement in the Siege itself, but I am uncertain of the technicalities involved in becoming Captain of the Castle in January and receiving a Patent in July. As one of the commissioners of the Castle/fort, it still seems unlikely that he would be removed from an important coastal fortress to travel to Boulogne as a standard-bearer.
NOTES ON THE SIEGE OF BOULOGNE <siege.htm>
NOTES ON Philip Chute, John Istedde and an Accusation of Piracy <privy.htm>
NOTES ON CAMBER CASTLE
Henry VIII's Coastal Artillery Fort at Camber Castle,Rye,East Sussex: An Archaeological,Structural and Historical Investigation <http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&sourceid=41626167&bfpid=0904220230&bfmtype=book>
The following is from Henry VIII's Coastal Artillery Fort at Camber Castle, Rye, East Sussex: An Archaeological, Structural and Historical Investigation, written by Martin Biddle, Jonathan Hiller, Ian Scott and Anthony Streeten. The following paragraphs are reprinted from Chapter Two, with their kind permission. Purchasing information from both British and American sources follow:
Camber castle is located on the south coast of England, a short distance to the south of the town and Cinque Port of Rye. Largely constructed between 1539 and 1543, it was an elaborate artillery fortification that represented an important element of Henry VIII's 'Device', or coastal defence network, put in place from 1539 as a response to the threat of invasion following England's breach with Rome. The castle was operational for 100 years. By the 1630s, the steady advance of the coastline had left it stranded well inland from the sea. This, combined with changes in the concept of the artillery fortification, resulted in its decommissioning in 1637. Unusually, Camber Castle was not adapted for continued use through the 18th and 19th centuries, and survives as an example of a largely unmodified Henrician artillery fort. It displays several clear and discrete phases of construction, which reflect changes in thinking about the design of fortifications. The construction phase of 1539-40, under the direction of Stephen von Haschenperg, is of particular interest since it represents the first attempt to build in England an artillery fortress of ultimately Italian inspiration. Doubts about the effectiveness of von Haschenperg's design led, however, to a complete remodelling of the castle's defences along more conservative lines, undertaken in 1542-3. The castle, which is in the guardianship of English Heritage, has seen numerous campaigns of research, survey and excavation. This volume draws together all the available evidence to provide a full and synthesised account of the current state of knowledge regarding this monument. It includes a revised and expanded version of Martin Biddle's authoritative study, originally published in The History of the King's Works. Full reports are also included on the artefact and animal bone assemblages, which are of considerable importance for the early post-medieval period. These include the extensive 16th and early 17th century assemblage of English and imported pottery, a German ceramic tile-stove, a wide range of 16th and 17th century military artefacts, and a significant collection of vessel glass including façon de Venise cristallo. The animal bone collection is a useful benchmark for the zoo-archaeology of post-medieval England, and provides evidence for early livestock improvements. There is also a detailed review of the surviving building accounts for von Haschenperg's fortification. 374p, 117 figs, 55 b/w pls, 67 tbs (English Heritage 2001)
Philip Chute, Captain of Camber Castle
Camber Castle monograph, Chapter 2
The commissioners were Philip Chute, John Fletcher and William Oxenbridge. Their names were entered under a heading for their wages in each of the surviving pays, but their wages were never given and must have been entered elsewhere. Philip Chute and John Fletcher signed every page of the accounts, the former with his name, the latter with his mark across which a scribe wrote 'Fletcher'. Chute, a yeoman of the Chamber, was appointed captain of the castle at Rye (ie the Camber) early in 1540,28 a post he was to hold for over twenty-five years.29 [see also Table 2.3 below]
But the greater part of the timber needed for the structure was obtained from Horne Wood near Appledore in Kent, and subsequently from Knell Wood in Beckley parish, Sussex, both about eight miles distant by water from the Camber. It is possible that Horne Wood was owned by Philip Chute who was one of the commissioners appointed to oversee the works at Camber, and who was subsequently appointed as captain of the castle. His house was later known as Horne Place.
Phase IV: Occupation and alterations, by Martin Biddle and Jonathan Hiller
On 1 January 1544 Philip Chute was appointed as Captain of the castle at 2s. a day (Table 2.3). The following year in July 1545 the French fleet made a concerted attack along the south-east coast after its successful engagement at Portsmouth where the Mary Rose was sunk. On 21 July 1545, with the French fleet off Brighton, the Rye chamberlains' accounts record the provision of a barrel of beer for the soldiers that 'came owte of the contrey when the Galles and French Shippes were before this Towne' ... On 22 July a French force landed at Seaford, near Newhaven, east of Brighton. Whether Camber Castle saw action in the raid is unclear, but Rye had to reimburse the Captain for the loss of three bows 'att the tyme of the contrey commyng in for the defence of our enymyes'. There was a request to London from Rye for more gunpowder in April 1546 and 8 cwt were brought from London (Mayhew 1984, 115), which might suggest that powder had been used in an engagement at Rye the year before.
The raid of 1545 may account for the increased size of the garrison recorded in 1546. On 1 January 1544 the garrison comprised the Captain, 6 gunners and 8 soldiers, a total of 15 personnel. Between 1 October and 31 December 1546 the garrison had risen to include a Captain's deputy and soldier, a porter and a soldier, 16 gunners and 8 further soldiers giving a total of 28 and the Captain. Thereafter the garrison levels remained more or less constant throughout the second half of the sixteenth century. Philip Chute is last mentioned at Camber on 3 July 1565, and there are no details of a new appointment until Thomas Wilford is mentioned in 1570.
28. L. & P. xv, 323; xvi, 372 (1), 456; Add., 1446.
29. He was still captain in July 1565, having received his patent of appointment in July 1544: Cal. Pat. Rolls 1563-6, 237: cf. L. & P. xix (1), 1035 (142). By December 1570 the captain was Thomas Wilford (Acts P C vii, 406).
Table 2.3 The captains of Camber Castle, 1540-1637 (significant mentions only) (compiled by Martin Biddle)
Date Name Notes
?March 15401 Philip Chute First mention as captain; formerly one of the three commissioners of the works. Of the house later called Horne's Place, Appledore
1 October -31 December 15402 Mentioned 1 January 15443 Appointed Keeper and Captain of Camber and Keeper of the Waters of Camber and Puddle at 2s. the day
3 July 15654 Last mention
23 December 15705 Thomas Wilford First mention as captain
19 December 15997 Sir Thomas Wilford Probably in office until 1604 (see note 7), or 1609/10
2 January 16108 Peter Temple Grant for life of the office of Captain of Camber Castle and Keeper of the Waters
17 May 16139 Mentioned
2 October 161410 Mentioned
19 July 161511 Sir John Temple Grant of keepership on surrender of Peter Temple. No evidence has been found to show that Sir John ever took up office
31 October 161812 [Robert] Bacon First mention as captain
1625?13 Mentioned 23 July 162714 Robert Bacon Last mention as captain 5 October
163315 Thomas Porter First mention 22 April 163516 Mentioned 21 February
163717 Mentioned 25 December 163718 Termination of office
1. BL, Royal MS. App. 89, ff. 22-7 (cf. LP Henry VIII, xv, no. 323, p. 131).
2. LP Henry VIII, xvi, no. 372 (1), (2), pp. 168-9.
3. LP Henry VIII, xix (1), no. 1035 (142), p. 635. For a transcript of Chute's letter patent of appointment, see BL., Add. MS. 34,150, ff 52-3.
4. Cal Pat Rolls 1563-6, n. 1158, p. 237.
5. APC, 7 (1558-70), p. 406. Wilford had been granted the reversion of the captaincy on 3 July 1565, during the tenancy of Philip Chute (Cal Pat Rolls, 1563-6, n. 1158, p. 237). Chute had presumably either died or surrendered his office between July 1565 and December 1570.
6. PRO, SP12/168/10, f. 22v (cf. Cal S P Dom 1581-90, p. 158).
7. Wilford's surrender of his life grant of the reversion of the offices of keeper and captain of the castle of Camber and keeper of the waters of Camber and Puddle on 19 December 1599 is noted on the patent of his grant of 1565 (Cal Pat Rolls, Elizabeth I (1563-6, n. 1158, p. 237), but this does not mean that he ceased to be captain. The reversion of the offices after Wilford was granted on 30 January 1604 to Sir Richard Preston (Cal S P Dom 1603-10, p. 71), but there is no sign that he ever entered into office.
8. Cal S P Dom 1603-10, p. 579.
9. PRO, SP14/84/51
10. PRO, SP14/78/3.
11. Cal S P Dom 1611-18, p. 295.
12. Historical Manuscripts Commission 13th Report, Appendix, pt. iv, p. 51.
13. PRO, SP16/13/87, petition of Capt. Bacon (not dated, but probably 1625) for payment of arrears due to himself and his soldiers, last paid in 1623 and 1622, respectively (cf. Cal S P Dom 1625-6, p. 201). See below, note 18. Bacon was Remembrancer of the City of London (ibid. p. 384)
14. Acts of the Privy Council, Jan.-Aug. 1627, pp. 437-8, petition of Robert Bacon, captain of Camber Castle, for arrears due to himself and his 8 soldiers and 6 gunners. See below, note 18.
15. T. Rymer, Foedera, 19, 5.28, patent of 5 October 1633 appointing Thomas Porter to the reversion for life of office of Keeper and Captain of Camber (cf. BL, Add. MS. 6344, col. 609). W.D. Cooper, History of Winchelsea (1850), p. 179, gives the date as 8 October 1632. On 10 October 1633 Thomas Porter was reported as captain in place of Capt. Bacon (Cal S P Dom 1633-4, p. 242).
16. PRO, SP16/287/33, which notes that the repair of 'the ruynes of this Castle with the platformes will cost by Estimate' £720. See also SP16/290/72 and SP16/291/115 of 11 June 1635 (Cal S P Dom 1635, pp. 40-1, 118, 166-7).
17. PRO, SP16/347/76 (Cal S P Dom 1636-7, p. 455).
18. BL, Add. MS. 33,278, f. 13, payment to Robert Bacon and Thomas Porter, 'late Captens', of arrears of fee for 14½ years 'ended at Christmas last 1637'. The arrears for Camber were by far the worst: at most other castles and forts payments were only one, two, or three years in arrears. As Porter is described as late captain, his tenure must have ended at Christmas 1637.
Biddle, Martin & Hiller, Jonathan, Henry VII's Coastal artillery fort at Camber Castle, Rye, East Sussex: an archaeological, structural and historical investigation, 374pp, 172 ills, £40.00, Oxford Archaeological Unit & Oxbow Books, Nov 2001, ISBN 0-904220-23-0
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Text, except as cited, ©;Jacqueline Chute <mailto:[email protected]>
Source: "A History of Appledore", Sir John Winnifrith, 1973, 1983, Phillimore & Co., Ltd., Sopwyke Hall, Chichester, Sussex, Great Britain
Source: Sir Geoffrey Horne, Appledore, Great Britain
Source: Frederick Stephen ("Steve") Chute, British Columbia, Canada
Margaret married Philip of Appledore Chute  [MRIN: 551614706], son of Charles II Chute  and Avice or Avicia Crispe . (Philip of Appledore Chute  was born about 1494 in Appledore, Devonshire, England, died on 5 Apr 1566 in Surrenden Chute/Old Surrenden, Bethersden, Kent, England and was buried in 1566 in Appledore Church, Kent, Englandt.)