Marcian Emperor of the Byzantine Empire [61281]
(0396-0457)
Aelia Marcia Euphemia [61280]

 

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Anthemius [61282]

Aelia Marcia Euphemia [61280]

  • Marriage: Anthemius [61282]
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcia_Euphemia

Aelia Marcia Euphemia was the wife of Anthemius , Western Roman Emperor
Family
Marcia Euphemia was the only known daughter of Marcian </wiki/Marcian>, Byzantine Emperor . The identity of her mother is unknown. Her stepmother was Pulcheria , second wife of her father. Pulcheria had taken a religious vow of chastity . The second marriage was a mere political alliance, establishing Marcian as a member of the Theodosian dynasty by marriage. The marriage of Marcian to Pulcheria was never consummated , consequently Euphemia never had younger half-siblings.
Evagrius Scholasticus quotes Priscus , stating that Marcian was "by birth a Thracian , and the son of a military man. In his desire to follow his father's mode of life, he had set out for Philippopolis , where he could be enrolled in the legions ". However Theodorus Lector reports Marcian to be an Illyrian .
Marriage
Her wedding to Anthemius is estimated to about 453. Her new husband was son to Procopius, "magister utriusque militiae </wiki/Magister_militum>" ("Master of Soldiers of both armies", commander of both cavalry and infantry ) of the Eastern Roman Empire from 422 to 424. According to Sidonius Apollinaris , the magister militum was a namesake descendant of Procopius who had served as a rival emperor from 365 to 366.
Father and son are considered possible descendants of Artemisia . In about 380, she was mentioned by John Chrysostom as the widow of a failed Roman usurper , reduced to poverty following the end of a rebellion. By the time John mentioned her, Artemisia was living the life of a blind beggar . Zosimus reports that Procopius had been survived by his unnamed wife and children, thus the possible identification of Artemisia as his widow. The reference comes from the "Letter to a Young Widow" : "It is said also that Artemisia who was the wife of a man of high reputation, since he also aimed at usurping the throne, was reduced to this same condition of poverty, and also to blindness; for the depth of her despondency, and the abundance of her tears destroyed her sight; and now she has need of persons to lead her by the hand, and to conduct her to the doors of others that she may obtain the necessary supply of food."
Anthemius' namesake maternal grandfather was Anthemius , Praetorian prefect of the East and effective regent of the Eastern Roman Empire during the later reign of Arcadius and the first years of Theodosius II . He is better known for the construction of the first set of the famous Theodosian Walls .
Euphemia and Anthemius would have five known children, one daughter and four sons. Their daughter Alypia is known as the wife of Ricimer . Their sons were Anthemiolus , Marcian , Procopius Anthemius and Romulus. Marcian married Leontia, a daughter of Leo I and Verina . The couple led a failed revolt against Zeno in 478-479. They were exiled to Isauria following their defeat.
Following their marriage Anthemius was appointed a Comes rei militaris and was sent to fortify the Danube frontier, still in disarray following the death of Attila the Hun . He returned to Constantinople in 454, rewarded by Marcian with the offices of magister militum and Patrician . He served as co-consul with Valentinian III in 455. Historians interpret the list of honors to mean that Marcian was preparing his son-in-law for eventual elevation to the imperial office. John Malalas considered that Marcian had named Anthemius emperor of the Western Roman Empire , however this is considered an anachronism of the chronicler.
Death of Marcian
In January, 457 Marcian succumbed to a disease, allegedly gangrene . He was survived by Euphemia and Anthemius. . Marcian had been proclaimed an Augustus as consort of Pulcheria , a member of the Theodosian dynasty . With his death the dynastic succession ended. His only daughter was from a previous marriage and thus not considered heiress to the dynasty. The Byzantine army </wiki/Byzantine_army> and the Byzantine Senate had to elect a new Augustus. Aspar , the magister militum ("Master of soldiers") of the Eastern Roman Empire , was unable to claim the throne for himself due to his origins and religious affiliations. [17]. He was one of the Alans , a Sarmatian tribe. Though his family had served in the Roman military for generations, Aspar was still considered a barbarian. He was also an adherent of Arianism while the majority of the ruling class of the Eastern Roman Empire had accepted the Nicene Creed . Therefore an unpopular choice for the throne.
Aspar used his influence in order to be become a kingmaker . He was able to pick a candidate among his own subordinate officers, probably counting on their continued loyalty. He chose Leo and the Senate accepted the choice. On 7 February 457 , Leo was crowned by Patriarch Anatolius of Constantinople , the first such coronation known to involve a Patriarch. .
With the death of her father, Euphemia was no longer a member of the imperial family. Anthemius continued to serve as magister militum under Leo. He is credited with defeating Valamir , King of the Ostrogoths during the early 460s. In the winter of 466-467, Anthemius is credited with defeating Hormidac , a leader of the Huns who had led an invasion of Dacia ..
Empress consort
According to Priscus , Geiseric , King of the Vandals had been leading annual raids into Sicily and Italia since the Sack of Rome in 455. He had managed the annexation of a number of cities into his kingdom and pillaging others. But a decade later the two western provinces "had become destitute of men and of money", unable to offer sufficient plunder for the Vandals. He expanded his raids to include Illyricum , the Peloponnese , Central Greece and "all the islands that lie near it ". Leo had to deal with the new threat and decided to set a new Western Roman Emperor to face Geiseric. The Western throne had been vacant since the death of Libius Severus in 465.
Leo chose Anthemius to be his new colleague in the imperial office. Anthemius headed to Rome with an army under the command of Marcellinus , the magister militum of Dalmatia . Anthemius was proclaimed emperor on 12 April 467 . Cassiodorus places his proclamation at the third milestone from the city of Rome, naming its location as Brontotas. Hydatius places is at the eighth milestone. Marcellinus Comes mentions the proclamation but not its location. . Euphemia was featured as an Augusta in Roman currency from c. 467 to 472. However her role as an Empress is only confirmed by these Archaeological evidence. The literary accounts cease mentioning her by the point Anthemius moves to Italia.
Leo had managed to remove a potential rival for the throne from Constantinople while simultaneously placed an experienced general in a position to face Geiseric. The return to the sharing of power between two emperors, rather than only one in Constantinople, was celebrated at the Eastern capital by a panegyric , written by Dioscorus of Myra . He was a grammarian , known to have served as the teacher of Ariadne and Leontia. His students were the daughters of Leo and Verina. According to Procopius of Caesarea , Geiseric contested the succession. His own candidate for the throne was Olybrius , husband of Placidia. Placidia was one of two daughters born to Valentinian III and Licinia Eudoxia . The other was Eudocia , wife of Huneric and daughter-in-law of Geiseric. Procopius ascertains that Olybrius maintained a good relationship with his Vandal kinsmen.
Anthemius may have held the throne but his authority rested on the continued cooperation of Ricimer , a Suebi general who has served as magister militum of the West since 455. Ricimer had previously managed to depose both Avitus and Majorian , two previous Western Roman Emperors. He had placed Libius Severus on the throne himself. The alliance between Anthemius and Ricimer was secured with the marriage of the latter to Alypia by the end of 467. Sidonius Apollinaris , who attended the festivities, commended that hours after the end of the ceremony "the bride still delays to start for her husband's house". Which is taken to mean Alypia was not happy to marry the elder general.
Failed campaigns
Leo and Anthemius organized their first campaign against Geiseric in late 467. Hydatius mentions that the combined fleet sailed towards Africa Province , fully occupied by the Vandals, but had to return before reaching its goal, due to "the unsuitability of the weather". Presumably they had sailed in winter and storms through the Mediterranean Sea prevented further hostilities from either side. Priscus, Candidus and Procopius give detailed reports of the second campaign in 468. The invasion of the kingdom of the Vandals was one of the greatest military undertakings recorded in the an-nals of history, a combined amphibious operation with over ten thousand ships and one hundred thousand soldiers. However it failed as the leader of the expedition Basiliscus , brother of Verina and brother-in-law to Leo, accepted a ceasefire for negotiations with Geiseric. During the night, the unguarded Roman fleet was ambushed by Vandal fire ships . The Byzantine commanders tried to rescue some ships from destruction, but these manoeuvres were blocked by the attack of other Vandal vessels. The campaign was a disaster.
Anthemius had to face another front against Euric of the Visigothic Kingdom . Initially based in Aquitaine , the kingdom had expanded over much of Gaul and Hispania within the last few decades. In about 469, Anthemius employed Riothamus , a King of the Britons to oppose Euric. As mentioned in Getica by Jordanes : "Now Euric, king of the Visigoths, perceived the frequent change of Roman Emperors and strove to hold Gaul by his own right. The Emperor Anthemius heard of it and asked the Brittones for aid. Their King Riotimus came with twelve thousand men into the state of the Bituriges by the way of Ocean, and was received as he disembarked from his ships. (238) Euric, king of the Visigoths, came against them with an innumerable army, and after a long fight he routed Riotimus, king of the Brittones, before the Romans could join him. So when he had lost a great part of his army, he fled with all the men he could gather together, and came to the Burgundians , a neighboring tribe then allied to the Romans. But Euric, king of the Visigoths, seized the Gallic city of Arverna ; for the Emperor Anthemius was now dead." This failed campaign is also mentioned by Sidonius Apollinaris, the Chronica Gallica of 511 and ,briefly, by Gregory of Tours .
The Chronica Gallica of 511 mentions another campaign against Euric in 471, this one led by Anthemiolus , son of Euphemia and Anthemius. "Anthemiolus was sent to Arles by his father the emperor Anthemius along with Thorisarius, Everdingus, and Hermianus the Count of the Stables. King Euric encountered them on the other side of the Rhone and, after killing the generals, devastated everything". Anthemiolus was probably among the slain, he is not mentioned again. Anthemius made no further attempts to reestablish imperial authority in Gaul. While Southern Gaul was mostly ruled by Euric and his Visigoths, effectively independent Gallo-Roman enclaves existed in Northern Gaul. They were ruled by Paul , Syagrius and possibly others. They may have issued coinage featuring Anthemius or Euphemia but that was the full extend of imperial rule in their area.
End of the reign
According to the fragmentary chronicle of John of Antioch, a 7th century monk tentatively identified with John of the Sedre , Syrian Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch from 641 to 648 in 470 Anthemius suffered a "serious sickness" due to witchcraft , presumably poisoning . He recovered and started persecution of many men allegedly involved in the conspiracy against him. Cassiodorus , John of Antioch and Paul the Deacon mention the execution among them of Romanus, the magister officiorum who reportedly harbored imperial ambitions.
John of Antioch mentions that Romanus was a close friend of Ricimer. Whether he was innocent or the two friends had actually conspired against Anthemius, Ricimer left Rome in protest over Romanus' death. He retired to Mediolanum , summoning there six thousand men under his command. Anthemius and Ricimer were apparently preparing to wage civil war against each other. The biography of Epiphanius of Pavia by Magnus Felix Ennodius mentions that the notables of Liguria begged Ricimer to reconcile with the Emperor. Ricimer seemingly agreed, sending Epiphanius to Anthemius for negotiations.
Epiphanius seems to have managed to secure a truce which lasted from c. 470 to 472. However hostilities started again after the end of the truce. According to John Malalas , Leo decided to intervene and send Olybrius to quell the hostilities. Olybrius had also been instructed to offer a peace treaty to Geiseric on behalf of Leo. However, Leo had also send Modestus, another messenger, to Anthemius with a different set of instructions. This message asked Anthemius to arrange the deaths of both Ricimer and Olybrius. However Ricimer had placed Goths loyal to him at the ports of Rome and Ostia Antica . They intercepted Modestus, delivering him and his message to Ricimer himself. Ricimer revealed the contents of the message to Olybrius and the two men formed a new alliance against their former masters.
Olybrius was proclaimed emperor and the civil war proper begun. John of Antioch claims that Anthemius was supported by most of the Romans while Ricimer by the barbarian mercenaries. Odoacer , leader of the foederati joined the cause of Ricimer. Gundobad , a nephew of Ricimer, also joined the cause of his kinsman. According to John Malalas and John of Antioch, Gundobad managed to slay Anthemius and end the conflict. They claim that Anthemius had been abandoned by his last followers and sought refuge in a church. Gundonad entered the church and killed him anyway. The two chroniclers differ on the location of the event. Malalas places it in the Old St. Peter's Basilica while the Antiochean places it in Santa Maria in Trastevere . However Cassiodorus , Marcellinus Comes and Procopius report that Anthemius was killed by Ricimer himself. The Chronica Gallica of 511 mentions both theories, uncertain of which of the two men had done the deed. Whether Euphemia survived her husband is unknown.

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Aelia married Anthemius [61282] [MRIN: 551617536]. (Anthemius [61282] was born about 420 and died on 11 Jul 472.)




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